The ReSAC has participated in many projects in which it has been a leading institution as well as members from ReSAC have been consultants and subcontractors in projects lead by other organisations.
Since its establishment in 1998, ReSAC has fulfiled and participated in more than 20 projects both local and international. The projects are in the area of agriculture and environmental management, land cover/land use, soil and forest inventory, water resources, environmental hazards, urban planning with the application of Remote Sensing and GIS technologies. In all of the projects the remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used. The satellite images used cover almost all range of the available sensors nowadays: QuickBird, Ikonos, IRS, SPOT 4/5, Landsat TM/ETM+, Aster, MODIS, NOAA-AVHRR, SeaWiFS, CZCS as well as images from KVR-1000, KFA-3000 and aerophotos.
geoland2 - Showing the Situation on the Ground
Partners Involved: 50 European companies and institutions, including ReSAC
The Core Mapping Services produce basic geo-information on land cover and land use and its annual and seasonal changes as well as a variety of additional biophysical parameters describing the continental vegetation state, the radiation budget at the surface and the water cycle on the basis of satellite Earth observation data. They cover local to global scales with updating frequencies from one day to several years.
50 companies and institutions from around the Europe participate in this project, including ReSAC from Bulgaria.
SAFER - The Right Knowledge Can Save Lives
Partners Involved: 55 European partners, including ReSAC and NIMH
Implementing a pre-operational version of the GMES/Kopernikus Emergency Responce Core Service, SAFER's main goal is to provide a rapid mapping capacity in response to disastrous events. Such information is based on satellite images of the affected area and on reference maps, which SAFER prepares in advance for areas faced with an elevated risk of emergencies. Such risk areas may be mountain valleys with a history of flooding or landslides, dry lands vulnerable to forest fires or the neighbourhood of a volcano.
From 2008, SAFER delivers services at full scale in response to real events as well as during specific exercises. The project's main performance criterion is the response time: with SAFER, reference mapping will be made available to users within just six hours after an emergency situation arises. Assessment maps of the disaster area will be available within 24 hours.
In project's consortium are 55 companies and institutions from around the Europe, including ReSAC and the NIMH from Bulgaria.
COSMOS - Joining Forces to Better Serve FP7 Applicants
Partners Involved: 55 European partners, including ReSAC and STIL/BAS
The National Contact Points (NCPs) for Space from 32 countries now work together in the project COSMOS. The support action aims at making it easier for applicants to the EU's Seventh Framework Programme for Research (FP7) to find international partners and to exchange good practices.
Cosmos means an orderly or harmonious system. It originates from the Greek meaning "order, orderly arrangement, ornaments", and is the antithetical concept of chaos. Yet cosmos also defines the idea underlying the COSMOS support action, which is to bring about an orderly arrangement for the service of NCPs including dissemination of information about the FP7 Space theme in a varied context comprising some 32 countries across Europe and the Near East.
COSMOS - Cooperation Of Space NCPS as a Means to Optimise Services - aims at building network of Space NCPs.
Project's partners include companies and institutions from 34 European countries, including ReSAC and the Solar-Terrestrial Influences Laboratory of BAS from Bulgaria.
Partners Involved: SPOT Image, SERTIT, DDSC, ReSAC, Infoterra, Boost Technologies
In resent years Bulgaria is prone to more and more natural hazards and man-made disasters. BulgaRisk is a bulgarian-french project aiming at the integration of satellite imageries in the operational procedures of risk management in Bulgaria. Main beneficients are the Bulgarian SAITC and ASDE. Authorised users will be the National Fire Safety and Civil Protection Service, National Civil Protection Service, National Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology, the institute for Oceanology and some regions and municipalities.
The specific objectives of the project are defined as:
- to create a report for the status and the needs of the governmental institutions in Bulgaria for geographic data during all stages of disaster management - prior, during and after their occurance.
- To demonstrate to the decision makers and to other interested parties the usefulness of satellite imageries as a sourse for natural hazards information and as a key instrument for their management for whose purpose to present the most resent achievements in this field and to create 3 data base prototypes for 3 pilot regions for 3 types of disasters (floods, forest fires and water pollution).
- To list the recommendations for the creation of the bulgarian information center for Disaster Management and for the integration of satellite imageries and new information and communication technologies in the development of national data base for the disaster management (database content, human and material resources, necessary for the creation and support of the database).
The project started in June 2007 and is planned to finish in September 2008.
Partners Involved: ReSAC, JRC, SPOT Image, Spacemetric.
ReSAC along with SPOT Image and Spacemetric participated in a thorough research of JRC on the orthorectification accuracy of FORMOSAT-2. The aim of this study was to finalise the analysis on the potential of the FORMOSAT-2 satellite as a backup sensor for the CwRS Campaigns, which are carried out on a yearly basis over the EU member states. Essentially, the research consisted of consecutive orthorectifications of an image with gradually increasing, in a strict order, number of GCPs. The test was performed on two distinct study areas – one over Sozopol in Bulgaria and another over Mausanne in France. Furthermore, for each site two different incidence angles were evaluated for their effect over the orthorectification products' positional accuracy.
Partners Involved: ASDE, ReSAC, National Service Fire Safety and Civil Protection.
The SAITC assigned a project for creation of fast track maps for the most severe fires in Bulgaria for the period 10th-29th July 2007 on the base of SPOT-5 and DMC-II satellite imageries. The pilot study was accomplished by the ASDE and ReSAC in cooperation with the NSFSCP under the MI.The project was supported by the EC - JRC, Republic of France and Federal Republic of Germany.
The study was carried out in compliance with several programmes of the EU such as:
- Building the European Research Area in the field of ICT for environmental sustainability ànd security
- Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES)
- Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14th of March 2007, establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE)
You can view some examples of the resulting map for fire area classification on SPOT (here) and on DMC-II (here).
Creation of the Orthophotomap on the Base of Satellite Images for Part of the Territory of Bulgaria
Partners Involved: ASDE, ReSAC, MAF, EUSI, EURIMAGE, SPOTIMAGE, Dian Zlatev-98
The Project's general aim was the creation of Digital Orthophoto map for part of the territory of Bulgaria on the base of VHR satellite images (QuickBird and IKONOS). The financing came by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. After an open international tender the project was awarded to the consortium lead by the Agency for Sustainable Development and Eurointegration – ECOREGION and its specialized center Remote Sensing Application Center - ReSAC. Partners in the consortium are the major European representatives of the companies which deliver satellite images - EUSI, EURIMAGE è SPOTIMAGE. Dian Zlatev-98 took also part in the project as a company responsible for the on-ground survey reference point measurements.
The Project is of extreme importance for the membership of Bulgaria in the EU regarding the Common Agricultural Policy - CAP (LPIS/IACS) and was fulfilled respecting all specifications and recommendations of the DG JRC.
The Satellite Digital Orthophoto Map with very-high resolution (0.7 – 1 m) was created for an extent of 33,364 sq.km. for Southern Bulgaria. The satellite images are archive data for the period 2003-2005. The digital elevation model used for the orthorectification is product of SPOTIMAGE called Reference3D, which during this project was used for the first time as high-quality DEM at a country scale for the LPIS purposes.
The Project, containing mainly the processes of orthorectification of satellite images, is unique with the short terms for its fulfillment – 3.5 months, and with the introduction of a new methodology, specifically developed for this tasks. The first raw imageries were delivered on 10th of April 2006 and the final orthorectified products were finished on 25th of July 2006.
Monitoring of the Road Infrastructure
using Remote Sensing and Voice-activated Technology
Partners Involved: ASDE, ReSAC, Voice-Insight Ltd., NBT, Progeo
Considering the importance of the information related to the road infrastructure, the Bulgarian administration is launching a project implemented by ReSAC and partners for data collection using modern technologies. The main aim of the project is the create geodatabase of the transport corridors, using satellite data and additional field inspections. The data suppliers were SPOT Image (SPOT 5), EUSI (IKONOS) and Eurimage (Quickbird). The project will be finalized in the end of 2006.
The scope of the project is to propose a test prototype that would demonstrate the possibilities of achieving a leapfrog improvement in the planning and monitoring of the road infrastructure of the European transport corridors by using remote sensing data and complementary technology called VQL. The main aim is to complement the more traditional field inspections with satellite monitoring of road infrastructure and voice technology to allow collecting data on the field with high performance and reliability.
This proposal is in accordance to the following main initiatives:
- Development of the Trans-European Networks (TEN) and the introduction of the European standards in all transport sub-sectors;
- Creation of actual and reliable geodatabase for the road network as part of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure in accordance to GMES initiatives and the directives of INSPIRE “Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe”;
- Implementation of Decision of the Bulgarian Council of Ministers No. 761 from 24.09.2004 for the establishment of common geodatabase for territory, population and resources of Bulgaria;
These voice enabled field inspections are necessary and complementary activity to the monitoring and data collection of the road infrastructure using satellite images. Very high-resolution satellite data has the ability to provide actual information of the land cover/land use along the road. However it has a limited resolution for capture and properly identify single objects less than 0.6 meters. In those cases when the information from the satellite is not enough, field inspection with voice-enabled Tablet PC, containing images and graphical data, will provide and manage the data in efficient and consistent manner.
This system could provide enough information for strategic decision-making, related to the maintenance of the road network and the financial planning for these tasks. Using these technologies, the creation of a dossier for the road will be much faster and for much less budget, than the traditional surveying. In addition the data collected on the field could be used for validation of the result from the image interpretation.
The project is implemented by ReSAC (Bulgaria), Voice-Insight Ltd. (Belgium), New Bulgarian Technologies (Bulgaria) and Progeo (Bulgaria).
The Bulgarian Agriculture Pilot in the frame of FP6 IST Project SAFIR
Partners Involved: ReSAC, VRA, NBT, MAF
The Project SAFIR is developed under the Sixth Framework Programme of the EC and one of the project leaders is the company Voice-Insight Ltd. from Belgium.
The role of ReSAC in SAFIR project as local partner of Vratza Regional Administration is to identify and develop new and interesting domain in order to prove the efficiency of the technology as well as to increase the reach and dissemination potential of the project. The pilot was focused in the field of agriculture, considering the importance of the future implementation of Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) in Bulgaria. The project started in the beginning of 2004 with duration of 4 years.
The Agriculture will be one of the most important sectors of the Bulgarian economy after the accession of the country in the EU. The implementation of the Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) of the European Union will have a huge impact on citizens in Bulgaria and will engage enormous resources of the Administration in order to manage properly the EU subsidies.
The process of managing the aid declaration and the control of subsidy distribution consists of different sophisticated services and activities involving as actors both the administration and the farmers. The IT framework will be the Integrated Administrative Control System (IACS) and the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS). There is a big potential of introducing (as well as testing) of the voice activated technology in the annual management of the EU subsidies, which could increase the performance of the system and guarantee the payments to farmers in due time. In particular, the introduction of SAFIR technology should be focused on field inspections - as one of the most time-consuming activities during the campaign, sometimes even a bottleneck of the whole process of subsidy management and control.
The analysis lead to the conclusions that the introduction of SAFIR technology in the part of field inspections and other filed activities, complementary to the Control with Remote Sensing will dramatically increase the performance of both LPIS and IACS systems and help guarantee the payments to farmers in due time. Additional benefits for the field users will be the shorter terms of field tasks completion, the decreased expenses for staff training, the improved accuracy of data and avoiding discrepancies in the field.
The pilot is implemented by following local partners: ReSAC (Bulgaria), Vraca Regional Administration (Bulgaria) and New Bulgarian Technologies (Bulgaria).
Voice-Insight Ltd. is positioned to become the leader in the field of voice enablement of Data Base Management Systems (“DBMS”). Voice-Insight’s software, VQL™ (Voice Query Language), is a unique automatic syntax-centric technology, which enables users directly to request and manage information from any database application by using everyday language.
Second Pilot Project on Preparation of the LPIS for Bulgaria - Rules, Technical Recomendations for creation of the system on the base of test area of Assenovgrad Municipality using VHR satellite data
Involved partners: MAF, ReSAC, JRC
The Ministry of Agriculture of Bulgaria with the support of MARS-PAC of the Institute for Protection and Security of Citizen at the Join Research Center started two pilot projects for the preparation of the methodology for the creation of the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS). Both projects are implemented by the ReSAC.
The aim of the projects is to complete results obtained in the Pilot Study for Control with Remote Sensing (developed by ReSAC and AIRECTS - France/Spain) in a different context in order to define an overall strategy for BG and to prepare technical recommendations for the Block CAPI. Another important issue in these pilots will be to assess the situation of agricultural areas with the consequence on eligibility.
The analysis is based on archive VHR data from Quickbird, provided by JRC. Ref3D from SPOT Image is used for orthorectification of the imagery. The Directorate “Land Property, Registers and Information Technology” at the Ministry of Agriculture provided the digital cadastre of the Municipality of Assenovgrad.
A workshop with the participation of expert from ReSAC and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry was organized in the beginning of September 2005 by the AGRIFISH Unit, in the frame of its support to Candidate countries for the implementation and control of the CAP (MARS PAC action of the JRC 6th Frame work program).
The objectives are:
- to provide a technical overview on the implementation of the Land parcel Identification System (LPIS) and the IACS GIS (regulation 1782/03);
- to discuss the first results of the Bulgarian pilot study on LPIS in Assenovgrad (started in July 2005) using the satellite imagery provided by the JRC;
- to provide recommendations for the implementation of the Bulgarian IACS-GIS.
FP 6 IP - IST - SAFIR Project
Involved partners: CCI-Vratsa, NTB-AD, Vratsa District Administration, ASDE-ReSAC
The Safir project will give each citizen and special user groups an equal opportunity to access and modify at any time interactively existing up to date e-government information thru easy devices as TV , wired and wireless devices (GSM/PDA),… from anywhere by usage of own voice in his daily language.
The objectives are:
- Offer easy transaction access to both PC illiterate citizens and special users like police, fire brigades, governmental employees (surveyors and other field employees in charge of recording facility assets modifications) while on the move. eg: permit forms, adequate field reaction to hazards, anonymous e-payment…
- Establish the techniques and procedures to have up to date data to be used by the citizens and the special users,
- Enhancing data modeling and voice domains through ontology and semantic in a multilingual enlarged Europe.
Pilot Study on Elaboration of Land Parcel Identification System on a Test Area in Bulgaria
Involved partners: ASDE-ReSAC, JRC
The Project objectives are:
- To test the process of implementation of LPIS on a pilot site from the point of view of technology and resources needed.
- To initiate the preparation of a methodology for the elaboration of LPIS in Bulgaria.
- To make a technical demonstration, enabling the estimation of the deployment of LPIS at national scale
- This study was proposed as a follow-up action by the ReSAC team and JRC after the final workshop of the project “Pilot study on the Control with Remote Sensing of Area Based Subsidies in Bulgaria”, held on 10-11 of February 2005 in Ispra, Italy.
Pilot Study on the Control with Remote Sensing of Area Based Subsidies in Bulgaria (2004-2005)
Involved partners: JRC, BASA-ReSAC, Intelgeo, AIRE/CTS
- To test the whole process of CwRS on a pilot site
- From the point of view of technology
- From the point of view of organization on both local and national level
- To evaluate the possible sources for LPIS at national level
- To propose a global organization of the future Control with Remote Sensing Campaign for Bulgaria
- To increase the awareness of citizen and national administration on CAP
- To promote GIS and remote sensing technologies in the agriculture on local level
Thus the project will help Bulgaria to find a solution for a rapid LPIS and IACS implementation before the integration deadline and to identify a technique compatible with the EU norms, regulations and recommendations.
The elaborated methodology will also set the technical specifications for the future campaigns for control by remote sensing of the arable and forage land area based subsidies in Bulgaria.
Creation of Digital Atlasses for the territory of the municipalities and cities of Vratsa and Rousse for the purposes of land management and urban planning
Involved partners: ASDE, BASA-ReSAC, Municipality Vratsa and Rousse)
The Digital Atlas of the Rousse Municipality contains thematic maps with the corresponding additional information for land cover/land use, soil resources and relief and hydrography of the territory of the Rousse Municipality.
For the analysis of land cover the LCCS classification of the FAO/UN is used. The Atlas is created using Dynamic Maps software of GTOS/FAO.
The Atlas also contains the main layers of infrastructure, hydrology and the administrative borders of the municipality as well as the analysis of the condition of the road network (incl. "agricultural" roads). The creation and analyses of the GIS layers was made on the base of satellite images from Landsat ETM and IKONOS.
The Digital Atlases of the cities of Vratsa and Rousse contains orthorectified satellite image from IKONOS (1m) from 2003, as well as the cadaster layers - parcels, buildings, utility networks and others.
The Atlas of Rousse also contains 3D-views of the city prepared with DEM in scale 1:5,000 and the height of the buildings.
RER/01/G33/A/1G/31 - Control of eutrophication, hazardous substances and related measures for rehabilitating the Black Sea ecosystem: Phase I, A Demonstration Of Environmental And Restoration Approaches In The Kamchiya River Basin, Bulgaria. Phase I: Development And Evaluation Of Modeling And Assessment Approaches
Involved partners: BSERP, Sofia University, Technical University Dresden, BASA-ReSAC
The Project addresses the need to develop, apply and make available tools for assessing and managing nutrient export from watersheds and the resultant deleterious loads to the Black Sea. These tools must account for spatial heterogeneity in land cover and use, and explicitly address issues related to material transport. Application of such tools allow managers to identify, prioritize and reduce exports from both point and non-point sources using approaches that are technically sound and cost-effective. The Project also demonstrates and evaluates the selected management interventions designed to reduce or eliminate nutrient export. The implementation of the WFD constitutes a major change in the management of coastal areas on the European level together with an appropriate change in the river basin management. For this purpose, the developed tools and models in the first phase of the project will be the core of a large decision support system (DSS) – the output of the second phase of the project, which also will be the base for producing River Basin Management Plans. The DSS will allow the general user, e.g., regional planners, civil servants etc. to perform large-scale analyses without requiring extensive experience in databases, GIS, and modeling tools.
Land cover mapping and Base Map GIS preparation for the purposes of agriculture, RIMEX Ltd. – Creation of the GIS database for the purposes of agricultural marketing using Dynamic Maps software
Involved partners: BASA-ReSAC
The region mapped is more then 1,5 mln ha in Northern Bulgaria. In order to create Land Cover maps Landsat TM and ETM images from 2000 - 2003 were used together with topomaps in scale 1: 100 000. The following land cover classes were mapped
- Two types of agricultural land – actively and not-actively managed;
- Urban area;
- Other areas: abandoned lands, natural vegetation, vineyards, orchards and others;
- Water areas.
In the GIS Database as additional information the following layers were included: soil types, infrastructure, administrative borders.
The following software products were used ERDAS Imagine, ArcView, LCCS, GeoVIS etc.
The Dynamic Maps Software is developed by the Canadian company SKE with the special support of the FAO and GTOS of the UN. It is à free software, which enables integration of GIS data with other additional information. The software:
- Integrates maps with Microsoft Office through PowerPoint and Excel.
- Ties the data to their relevant map features.
- Publish documents, files and web pages against map features.
The Dynamic Maps Software v3.0 has been added to the GIS data in order the customer to be able to make analyses and to browse the data.
Dynamic Digital Atlas and GIS for Ecozone "Sofia-East", Regional Information Centre for Urban Environment and GIS - Management, creation of reliable database, control and revision by space imagery
Involved partners: Bavarian Ministry of Environment, ASDE, BASA-ReSAC
The Dynamic Digital Atlas contains 20 thematic maps and the corresponding additional information, which are related to the so-called ECOZONE SOFIA-EAST. The atlas contains also some base layers as infrastructure, hydrology and administrative boundaries of the Ecozone area. All data is derived from a real GIS data, captured and maintained with SICAD Spatial Desktop software at the Regional Information Centre for Urban Environment and GIS – Agency for Sustainable Development and Eurointegration.
The ECOZONE SOFIA-EAST is a pilot project, developed in the frame of PHARE Program in 1997-8 – BG 9310-03-05-05. The Pilot Environmental Management Plan(EMP) for ECOZONE SOFIA EAST was developed for an urban/rural area of 135 km2 situated to the east of Sofia. Later with the support of the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning of Sofia Municipality the project was enlarged up to 209 km2. From 2001 the basic principles of sustainable development were accepted for the whole area of Sofia Municipality.
The atlas was prepared with the software Dynamic Atlas, version 3.0 developed by Spatial Knowledge Engineering Inc. (SKE), Canada.
The atlas was developed with the participation of experts from the BASA-ReSAC and with the kind support of Sofia Municipality and the Bavarian Ministry of Environment and Regional Development.
Pilot Project " Regional Information Centre for Urban Environment and GIS - Management" - Implementation of GIS for the Ecozone "Sofia-East", using SICAD Spatial Desktop Software, creation of reliable database, control and revision by aerial photos
Involved partners: Bavarian Ministry of Environment, ASDE, BASA-ReSAC
In 1999 Sofia Municipality defined Ecozone "Sofia-East" as part of the new Structural Scheme of the city. The elaborated under PHARE Project BG 9310-03-05-05 Environmental Management Plan of this test area established the base for a Local Model for Sustainable Development for the capital of Bulgaria. More than 15 Pilot Projects are defined in different domains: industry, infrastructure, rehabilitation, environment, transport. Using the Bavarian experience, the District of Mladost started the creation of Regional Information Center for Urban Environment. Geographic Information System (as an example is taken the SICAD technology), integrates all available geospatial information and provides the necessary outputs, which could be used by decision-makers and future investors.
With the strong support of the Permanent Bulgarian-Bavarian Commission, the Bavarian State Chancellery and the Bavarian Ministry of Regional Development and Environment, a GIS solution was chosen, based on the software SICAD Spatial Desktop from SICAD GEOMATICS. The system was installed in the District of Mladost - one of the most populated districts of Sofia, which area is part of Ecozone "Sofia - East". The project was conducted by the Agency for Sustainable Development and Eurointegration "Ecozone Sofia" (ASDE) together with Stalker-KM, the Bulgarian partner of SICAD and the BASA-ReSAC. More than 20 information layers were created - cadastre (provided by GIS-Sofia Ltd), land use/land cover, infrastructure, hydrography, geology, soils, protected zones, Digital Terrain Model, etc. Using the geoprocessing functionalities of SICAD Spatial Desktop, different thematic maps were elaborated, which provide essential information for some Pilot Project.
Project “3D modeling of Sofia region using radar imagery”, Agency for Sustainable Development and Eurointegration, in collaboration with BASA-ReSAC in the frame of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, DLR Germany, NASA, PI No. AO_040
Involved partners: ASDE, BASA-ReSAC
In September 1998 German Aerospace Center issued an Announcement of Opportunity for the use of data originated by the payload of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The evaluation was completed in March 1999.
From Bulgarian side Agency of Sustainable Development and Eurointegration (ASDE) participated with the project proposal "Model for Sustainable Development and Eurointegration for "Sofia-East" Ecological Zone". As a result of the evaluation process ASDE proposal was accepted.
The SRTM data were used in the continuation of the project one result of which is the creation of the Digital Atlas of Ecozone “Sofia-East”. SRTM data were integrated and merged with other sources of satellite information, thematic maps, topomaps and reference data.
In the original data no editing has been performed, and the elevation data contained numerous voids and other spurious points such as anomalously high or low values.
For the correction of errors several image processing techniques and GIS analyses and processing were performed to obtain correct data. The BASA-ReSAC did data processing and analyses.
Municipal Water System Leak Detection and Monitoring Project for the Water Supply Network of the city of Plovdiv. Development of GIS based system for monitoring linked with control devices for dynamic data provision. Ecolinks project in consortium with EWA Technologies, USA
Involved partners: Municipality of Plovdiv, EWA Technologies, Stalker KM Ltd., BASA-ReSAC
In January 2002, the City of Plovdiv received an EcoLinks Challenge Grant to support the first phase of its Leak Detection and Abatement project in order demonstrate, on a pilot-scale, a leading-edge technical approach to water system leak detection using Web monitoring and reporting technologies. Based on a successful outcome of the demonstration, the project will also develop a costed feasibility study for the full, system-wide deployment of the leak detection technology discussed in this proposal.
The primary and overall goal of this Ecolinks project is to demonstrate, on a pilot scale, how the application of real-time and Web-enabled flow monitoring technologies can enhance the effectiveness of its Zone Flow leak detection effort. This pilot online monitoring, management and reporting system for the water system is comprised of one flow measurement device, communications equipment, a control/monitoring PC workstation, and remotely connected PCs. The monitoring system will be used in efforts to diagnose the city’s water loss problem, and as a tool to achieve the City’s water conservation and eco-efficiency performance goals. Performance data from the Ecolinks-funded pilot has been used to prepare a feasibility study for the expansion of the real-time monitoring technology throughout the network as part of the Zone Flow approach to leak detection and abatement, and as a component of a larger, multi-media monitoring and management information system.
This project has demonstrated that the deployment of real-time monitoring technologies has enabled Plovdiv to more quickly and cost-effectively pinpoint the areas where serious water leaks are occurring. Both the pilot and an eventual full-scale project will involve exports of U.S. equipment and technology.
Control of Digital Models of Land and Forest Redistribution Plans with IRS satellite images
Involved partners: Proles Engineering Ltd., BASA-ReSAC
The regular update of the Forest Management Plans (FMP) require an update information for the forest cover and status. As such the IRS 5m. b/w images were used to assist in the FMP update.
IRS images for 3 regions in Bulgaria has been processed - orthorectified, enhanced and subsetted to map sheets such as those of scale 1:10,000. The satellite images were used in the field work of the survey companies to locate the forest boundaries and other features as well as in the process of digitalisation in the office.
Creation of Database of Wetlands in Bulgaria using RS and GIS technologies
Involved partners: Institute of Ecology - BAS, BASA-ReSAC
For the implementation of the scientific research "Identification and determination of the location and area of the natural and artificial standing wetlands on the territory of Bulgaria” in the frame of the project “Inventarisation of the wetlands in Bulgaria” of the “Le Balkan” Foundation, standing wetlands in Bulgaria were mapped in scale 1:50 000.
Topographic maps in scale 1:50 000 and satellite images from Landsat-TM and Landsat-ETM with the spatial resolution 30m from year 1989 till 2000 were used. More than 7800 wetlands were identified, as only water mirror was mapped. Attributive information for approximately 2100 of them was added for name of the object, closest settlement, river and catchment on which they belong. For all the rest objects area and geographic location were determined. For mapping of the wetlands different techniques for image processing were used – supervised and unsupervised classification of the images, visual interpretation and digitalisation.
This is the first mapping in GIS format of all wetlands in Bulgaria, and database created for their area and location is unique. Later mapping not only of the water mirror, but also on the territories occupied with macrophytes around wetlands is proposed.
National Concept for Information System for Monitoring and Forest Fire Management
Involved partners: BASA-ReSAC, National Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology, National Forestry Board - MAF
The main objectives are to:
- Make compatible the data, received from meteorological and resources satellites, thematic and cadastral maps and various land geoinformation.
- System for assessment and prognosis of the fire ignition risk.
- Fire evolution model.
Basic information needed:
- Land Cover/Land Use maps;
- Forest database, structured according to the type, location, and inflammability classes; Archive system of forest fires and their characteristics; Various physical characteristics describing fire ignition and distribution risk;
- Satellite information.
Real time information needed:
- Weather condition information;
- Satellite images;
- Detailed forecast of all important meteo-elements: wind, humidity, temperature, precipitation, soil condition, evapotranspiration
FAO/TCP/ROM/2801 “Land Cover/Land Use Inventory by Remote Sensing for the Agricultural Reform”, TCCT Consultancy
Involved partners: FAO/UN), (MoAFF, ROSA, CRUTA, ICPA, IG - Institute of Geography, USH - "Spiru Haret" University) - Romania, (BASA-ReSAC
Objectives of the Project:
The immediate objectives of the project are:
- To provide the Ministry of Agriculture with an objective and accurate database on the present land cover of the whole country including detailed land cover/land use maps and also larger scale information for areas of particular agricultural interest.
- To strengthen the capacity of the remote sensing group of CRUTA staff and other staff from the Ministry of Agriculture to apply internationally recognised methodologies on land cover/land use mapping by satellite remote sensing and GIS technologies.
- To transfer the know-how and practical applications of high resolution optical remote sensing, GIS based methodologies and LCCS to the staff assigned to project through formal and on-the-job training.
The achievement of these objectives will create the basis for the availability of accurate baseline information on land cover/land use and associated land characteristics, thus enabling the country to prepare and implement sound agricultural development plans, including criteria for land consolidation. The project will be a complementary data source for the World Bank project for cadastre undertaken by the National Office for Cadastre, Geodesy and Cartography (ONCGC) and also an important support for the planned agricultural census to be realised in late 2002 by the National Institute for Statistics (INS).
Land Cover mapping, Base Map GIS and Soil Database preparation for the North-Western part of Bulgaria for the purposes of precision farming
Involved partners: BASA-ReSAC, Cie Jules VAN LANKER s.a., Belgium)
The Projects objectives were to create Land Cover maps in scale 1:50,000 for the northern part of Bulgaria for the purposes of precision farming. As a source the Landsat TM images from 1998-1999 were used. The land cover classification used the LCCS methodology of FAO/UN for land cover mapping.
Two types of outcomes were produced: GIS Land Cover Database and printed maps in scale 1:50,000.
The GIS Land Cover Database contains information for the land cover, soil types, erosion, soil pollution, slopes. As additional information settlements, rivers, roads and electricity network was included.
Two types of maps were produced - Land Cover Maps and Soil Maps in scale 1:50,000.
Delineation and interpretation of forests and permanent crops (vineyards and orchards) from high-resolution satellite data (1m) and aerial photos for Sandanski Region, Bulgaria
Involved partners: BASA-ReSAC
The IKONOS data were used for checking and updating the state of permanent crops such as vineyards and orchards. Two types of cultivation technology for the vineyards were observed, namely:
- vineyards, covering large field sizes, planted on rows at a distance of 2-2.5 m from one another;
- vineyards covering medium size fields, planted in rows at a distance of 1-1.5 m from one another.
- orchards - well managed;
- orchards - abandoned.
As a background information agricultural cadaster and large scale topographic maps were used. The linear features - infrastructure elements were updated on the base of the IKONOS image.
The above clearly shows that very high-resolution satellite data provide important inputs in the updating of large scale land cover/land use inventory and monitoring.
Pilot project for Erosion Estimation using RS / GIS technologies - for the catchment area of Madan reservoir
Involved partners: ENERGOPROEKT, Sofia University, BASA-ReSAC
The Project objectives were to:
- assemble a high-quality GIS dataset for the Madan Resrvoir Basin using data for soils, land cover / land use, management, geology, topography, climate and water quality data;
- model erosion processes using GIS data and USLE model;
- test the model predictions with in-situ experiments and historical data;
- use the model to evaluate potential water quality benefits associated with the adoption of alternative management strategies on the Madan Reservoir Basin.
Pilot project for control of forest and agricultural land cadaster
Involved partners: BASA-ReSAC, MAF, Agrogeometer Inc.
Project Objective: Control of Digital Models of Land and Forest Redistribution Plans for cadaster purposes.
Bulgarian test area: Gorsko Slivovo Village in the Northern part of Bulgaria with the area 70 sq.km., using KVR-1000 image with 2 m. spatial resolution.
FAO Project TCP/BUL/8922 - Strengthening the capacity of agricultural development through remote sensing and GIS, financed by FAO/UN
Involved partners: FAO/UN, BASA-ReSAC
Land cover maps constitute a necessary tool for development planning and management of the territory. Furthermore, land cover maps depicting the current reality are a must in countries where, due to political changes, rapid dynamic phenomena have taken place, resulting in a complete restructuring of the agricultural and other sectors, as in the case of Bulgaria.
The scale of such maps should be large enough to provide detailed information, however it should allow for regional assessment, statistics and subsequent planning. The 1:50 000 scale is the most suited for this exercise.
The FAO project TCP/BUL/8922 "Strengthening Capacity in Agricultural Development through Remote Sensing and GIS" has produced 14 land cover maps at 1:50 000 scale for selected test areas of the country, covering 5 600 sq km. These maps were prepared using Landsat satellite data, acquired in 1998 and 1999 as the main data source and thus represent the land cover existing at that time. The land cover classification was performed using the FAO Land Cover Classification System (LCCS).
To each mapped unit (polygon), soil type and erosion features were linked as attributes into the GIS system. This created a comprehensive database, which is unique in Bulgaria. The database provides very useful information for agriculture, forestry and urban development planning, for environment protection and for many other applications. The data collected in the database provide the possibility for different kinds of spatial analysis, which is necessary in land management.
For an area of particular interest, IKONOS very high resolution satellite data were used to produce an assessment of the state of vineyards, the updating of the linear features of a large scale topographical map and other applications.
The methodology and applications reported in this study have been tested and refined under operative conditions in the framework of the project's activities.
Elaboration of Structural Scheme for Functional Zoning for Ecozone Sofia-East" – 207 km2 (Stage 1 and Stage 2), as a next phase of the development of the Pilot Environmental Management Plan for the Outlying Area of Sofia, financed by Sofia Municipality
Involved partners: Sofia Municipality, ASDE, BASA-ReSAC
Project Management, map analyses and edition of the “Pilot Environmental Management Plan for an Outlying Area of Sofia”, Map analyses on the base of satellite data and aerial photos, PHARE Programme, PHACSY No. BG9310-03-05-05, in Consortium with ESBI International, Ireland
Involved partners: ESBI International, Ireland, Stalker KM Ltd., BASA-ReSAC
The Pilot Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for Ecozone "Sofia e East" is prepared for an urban/rural area of 135 km2, situated to the east of the city of Sofia and Sofia Region. Land use in the area is varied and complex and includes high rise housing blocks, small satellite villages, industry and warehousing, highways and transport networks, agriculture and forestry, quarries and landfill sites. The area contains also Sofia Airport, Vrana Park botanical reserve and palace complex, Sofia East heat/power station and part of Iskar and Lesnovska rivers.
The EMP was developed by a consortium ESBI&STALKER-KM Ltd under PHARE Programme /Ministry of Environment Project - BG 9310-03-05-05 in 1996-1997.
The Pilot EMP proposes a Model for Sustainable Development and Eurointegration of Sofia and the region, defines Pilot Projects and a Structure for their implementation.